Writers’ Buildings has always had a pride of place in the minds of the citizens of the city as well as the state. This 236-year-old set of buildings bear their own history, revealing periodic changes that have, over the years, eroded some of its historic and architectural character. The only exception is the 200m long decorative facade. With the expansion of state government after independence, modifications have included the reconfiguration of internal space in order to accommodate the new departments, directorates and agencies. The alterations that occurred were often a catalyst to modify the finishing of the interior spaces to reflect changing tastes of those periods. During the last 20 years, there has also been the introduction of advanced technology. Mechanical, electrical, and communications systems were added without a holistic appreciation of the structure or sensitivity to the historical features of the building. As a result, many components of the original architectural design, including wall and floor finishes, lighting fixtures, ceilings, mechanical systems, and furnishings have been modified, again and again, to oblige the changing needs and individual preferences of the occupants. While the structural components have been well preserved and maintained, the functional spaces of the building have been significantly altered throughout its lifetime.
In recent past, the urgency for revisiting the whole complex was felt due to series of fire incident that took place from 2010-2013. This was deemed to be a matter of serious concern for a public building with a daily footfall of 14000 everyday. When the present Chief Minister announced the programme of reconfiguring the complex in order to facilitate systematic restoration, there was a heightened recognition of the buildings architectural integrity and historic value. In turn, this prompted the government to undertake the planning efforts to establish a source for future use and treatment. In 2013, the Government invited a consortium of academic institutions to undertake a comprehensive, multi-year master planning and restoration effort. Appointed by the Government of West Bengal, the team have enthusiastically and tirelessly begun the effort to ensure the preservation of the building and its continuing role as the functioning seat of power.
Statement of Significance
The Writers’ Buildings is nationally significant for its association with the history of the Imperial rule in 18th Century Bengal and for being one of the oldest functional, living heritage buildings in the state. It is significant for its association with several prominent leaders and administrators in Bengal since independence. The building is also important as one of the premiere examples of mid-nineteenth century eclectic architecture. In addition, the building is significant for its incorporation of changing layers of architectural style in a single building and its sustenance as functioning secretariat over the centuries in consonance with changing tastes & need.
Primary Periods of Significance
The Writers' Buildings was essentially designed as barracks to provide accommodation to the John Company's ‘writers’. As per the records, the construction of a three storied structure was completed in a very short time by Mr. Thomas Lyon. This building was the tallest in the city at that time. Though the architecture of the building did not evoke admiration from any corner, yet it is no denying a fact that this building is still standing with pride as one of the oldest witnesses of the evolution of the city and events surrounding the area.
Lyon’s original design was hidden beneath in two phases of facades. The first phase of re-modelling and improvements of “Writers’ Building” was under way by 1820-21, when Lord Wellesley decided to further extend the Fort William College already housed in Writers’ Building , with a long veranda being added on the south front and two small pediments on columns (considerably smaller than the central pediment) being added at the east and west ends, the latter both to provide some additional space and a better ornamented façade (by Capt. George Lindsay) to the north of the Tank.
It was under Sir Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal from 1879 to 1883, that Writers Buildings took its “heritage” shape and appearance. This comprised principally the complete re-modelling of the front façade by E.J. Martin, architect and engineer, by (a) removing the three old colonnaded Doric pediments of the southern façade and replacing with a mixed Italianate-Grecian frontage with three structures (at the centre and at the eastern and western ends) projecting from the southern veranda, (b) Venetian style arched windows, (c) Doric pedimented entrances in the centre and at the two sides at the ground floor; (d) addition of the Rotunda with its domed Georgian roof at the western end (where once stood the St. Anne’s Church (e) angled high roofs in Italianate style on the top floor, (f) addition of the statues of the goddess Minerva (sculpted by William Frederic Woodington ) and that of Science, Agriculture, Justice and Commerce on the top floor pediments, and (g) finally, three (Block-I,Block-II & Block-III) three-storied structures to the rear of the building and at right angles to it and to Lyons Range.
The Government vision is the restoration of the heritage portions of Writers’ Buildings to its original splendour & readjustment of some areas in order to facilitate /continue it as an smart secretariat building in future.
In May 2014, the consulting team started formulating the Master Plan for its restoration, and implement the recommendations approved by the Government. Extensive research of available historic archive materials, newspaper articles, discussions with individuals with intimate knowledge of the building, input from citizen groups, and on-site analysis has resulted in the development of a Master Plan to be used as a guideline throughout the restoration & redevelopment process. The plan describes four basic elements:
- historic research that has resulted in recommendations for preservation, restoration, or rehabilitation of significant historic spaces and architectural details set forth in a Preservation Plan
- readjustment of areas not in conformation with the heritage portions which are affecting all aspects like structural safety, fire norms, historical /architectural languages i.e. the overall health & environment of the whole complex.
- analysis of the conditions of existing building systems, fire and life safety issues, and opportunities to increase the functional and operational efficiency with recommendations for correcting deficiencies and increasing the life of the building for at least another 100 years.
- analysis of current and projected space needs of occupants. Setting forth a recommendation of space allocation which best addresses the functional and spatial needs of the occupants
- development of timelines for the implementation and completion of the project by the Government, and preliminary budgets based upon the recommendation for preservation, restoration, and rehabilitation included in each specific section of the Master Plan
Each section, describing specific systems, issues, or items of significance, contains descriptions and supporting rationale for the preservation, restoration, rehabilitation, or correction of deficiencies. For ease of reference, recommendations or considerations are included within each elemental division and summarized as follows:
• Preserve, restore, or rehabilitate interior areas as outlined in the recommended Preservation Plan.
• Convert the Writers' buildings complex in a green building with active uses of solar power for meeting the energy needs
• Install fire sprinkler and alarm systems to provide protection for the building occupants and structure and to mitigate inherent life safety deficiencies.
• Correct miscellaneous safety and building code deficiencies including stair landings, handrails, door exiting hardware, and roof maintenance access.
• Make the building accessible to differently abled persons including installation of an accessible elevator.
• Upgrade inadequate, inefficient, and outdated mechanical and electrical systems.
• Correct miscellaneous structural deficiencies including stabilization of facade and parapets.
• Provide infrastructure for enhanced technology communication systems.
• Repair, restore, and clean exterior stone, windows, and roofing assemblies.
• Replace deteriorated exterior stairs, corridors, walls, and introduce landscape elements, and install exterior site lighting for enhanced safety, security, and historic context.
This Master Plan is intended to serve as a general framework to guide implementation of the restoration of the State secretariat through programming, schematic design, design development, and construction documents phases of the design process. Each design phase will refine the requirements and program of the project and result in specific solutions for individual and collective issues and goals. The end result will be restoration of our State's most cherished landmark by the commencement of its original construction and provide functional and efficient use of the building for another 100 years.
The Writers’ Buildings deserve special attention, not only because of its historic architectural and institutional significance, but also because it is the public’s doorway to, and the symbol of, the state’s seat of power. The result will be a smart, impressive historic structure worthy of the state of West Bengal and the Nation that meets 21st century standards and provides visitors, guests, and staff with an appropriate introduction to the entire complex.
Defining the project
Evolution of Writers’ Buildings (1778-2013)
As discussed in detail in the previous chapters, In Calcutta, in the second half of 18th century, the East India Company cultivated with great commitment and with a high input of expenditure, its position as the leading European trading company in India. This ambitious aim of the British could however only be achieved if they are successful not only in keeping the administration of the company running but in steadily consolidating it. The aim was served in Calcutta by the erection of the Writers’ Building. This was where the new arrivals from the mother country were to be prepared for their job with the company in India.
The hotel like layout of the Writers’ Building as designed by Thomas Lyon is not unique; it is more of a product of its time. A similarity could be found during the same time where a similarly arranged small apartment for the ladies and gentlemen in waiting was annexed to one of the Royal pleasure palaces. The origin of this type of building would lie in the attempt at standardization according to the military pattern. The outside and the inside have a very symmetrical composition. The windows are lined up next to each other in monotonous repetition. There are fifty seven set of sets of them in all , distributed over the façade with two corner projection. A central projection articulated by ionic columns. Only the attic over the latter rises above the long straight roofline. Everything conveys the impression of civil barracks.
The building was always under attack from the citizens of Calcutta in 19th century for its essentially undecorated form. After the East India Company dissolved in 1858 paving the way for British Imperialism Writers’ Building had undergone a complete image transformation to suit the Imperial self- presentation and became the secretariat for the Bengal Government. Its new image was designed by Colonel H. St Clair Wilkins & E.J. Martin in 1880.
Pediment Figures in Writers’ Buildings
The secretariat’s new façade resembles a conscious classical image & style predominantly simulates French Renaissance forms with fusion of elements of antiquity, etc. Its pediment figures represent Wisdom, Justice, Trade and Agriculture. There is no lack of reference to antiquity, i.e. the Corinthian pilasters, and form mannerism, the Palladian windows. However; this is not a successful fusion of forms and symbols to create a sublime structure- but an attempt of “eclectic’ architecture that influenced Calcutta cityscape.
In the early years Mr. Richard Barwell , member of council at the time of Warren Hastings had leased out the building for “the accommodation to the junior servants and the students of Fort William College and also to the Fort William College, which occupied the central part of the building. Gradually the collegiate system of living was abandoned, and the nineteen sets of apartment were drifted to the hands of merchants and private individuals .In the hands of the merchants the ground floor was used mostly as godowns and store with few shops.”
In 1882, Bengal Secretariat occupied the renovated Writers’ Buildings. At the same time new set of wings have been constructed in the north of Writers’ Buildings for accommodating the various departments for Bengal Government. In 1883, a Rotunda was added in the western side of the building at the site of earlier St. Anne church. In the same year Bengal Legislative Council moved to the Rotunda and remained there until 1910.
After Independence several new additions and constructions took place for accommodating the growing need of space for the various new departments of Government of West Bengal, encroaching every possible open space and compromising its architecture and design.
Writers’ Buildings at present
Writers’ Buildings at present
The overall objectives of the whole exercise done regarding the Writers’ Buildings are:
• To study, analyse and protect the Architectural , Historical , Urban Design Value of the context of Writers’ Buildings
• To uphold the streetscape of which the Writers’ Building is a part of
• To protect the visual framework from the specific locale and vice versa from the building
• To mark the administrative decision taken through creation of a physical manifestation.
• To propose new development and addition-alteration for compatible and conforming transformation within the complex
• To outline the necessary architectural control both inside and outside for colour, texture and any other element that has visual impact.
• To study, determine and propose the building materials & methods as close as possible to the original ones, so as to warrant the preservation of the authenticity of the building in the present and future restoration process as a fruitful harmonious setting.
• To demolish the ad hoc & spurious buildings/ structures which does not conform the context, typology and also affecting the daylight, ventilation & overall safety (fire & environmental) aspects in the complex.
• To the maximum extent feasible, the existing materials from the demolished buildings and structures shall be recycled and/or reused.
• To broaden the understanding and appreciation of the building complex with reference to heritage, construction methods, energy consciousness, intelligent components, aesthetics, etc.
• To enable development of a functional plan that maximizes respect for historic fabric in conjunction with programmatic needs.
Writers’ Buildings being a part of the most important urban space and the heritage core of Kolkata required an in-depth understanding of the evolution of the space and its link to the site and activities of the Writers’ Building. This exercise is essential for assessing its historic value. This has been done through secondary sources – maps and textual references and drawings available from PWD. A time line data of the events in sequence & important buildings within its physical context have been studied along with certain historic milestones/events of Calcutta as well as Indian History. These have been mapped and analyzed for identifying the underlying historical concerns.
Physically Writers’ Buildings has been studied for its urban design aspects. The design vocabulary of Dalhousie Square – its form, treatment, design principles along with the particular streetscape that Dalhousie Square North, Dalhousie Square east & Old Court House Street represent. This has been carried out through comparing the old and recent photographs.
To ascertain the architectural significance particular emphasis has been given to its typology as a secretariat - a function which was consciously superimposed to the original structure in the nineteenth century & is still sustaining. Detailed measured drawings have been prepared with necessary photographic documentation. The damaged portions have been identified. These were necessary for identifying the restoration issues involved. External architectural elements have been documented for incorporating the necessary references in the architecture controls to be stipulated in to the new development.
Secondary references have been relied upon for constructing the cultural landscape of the area and how it has transformed over the years and why. This would help to comprehend the practical parameters to be incorporated in the future development.
In an urban core like Dalhousie Square (BBD Bag) one cannot deny the development dynamics. Land value in this area is very high resulting in intense commercialization.
Encroachments within the complex are rampant. Being the administrative Head Quarter, additions/ alterations within the complex have been made without any concern for its heritage, even by-passing the competent authorities. Repeated discussions with the stakeholders have been necessary to understand the development prospects and assess various upcoming issues related to the renovation of the Writers’ Building project.
One has to look at the Municipal Bye Laws, Building Rules, controls and guidelines of West Bengal Heritage Commission, observations of various departments of Fire, Traffic, and Police for arriving at a practical, implementable project. Several group discussions have been held to track the roles and obligations. Detailed physical survey and photographic documentation have been carried out to understand the degree and nature of transformation in the whole complex.
These secondary data has been corroborated with the photographs, drawings, maps to identify the concerned issues that need to be addressed and their priority. A detailed project Report has been prepared for tackling these issues in a concerted manner for protecting, safeguarding, guiding the future development within the complex. T o this end, a thorough observation was made of the construction materials and techniques used in the past and, based on the results of this survey, testing, guidelines and strategy have been given on the choice of construction materials and on the most appropriate building practices to be applied as from now on the site. These aspects of the team are summarized in the following paragraphs, whereas detailed technical considerations are presented in Part I , II , III and IV of the present Report.
The parameters which guided the present day intervention are as follows:
Table of chronology
Layout of blocks
Architecture & Built form
Barrack Form (1777-1780)
Sprawl Form (1881-1882)
Closed courts (1952-1962)
Built-up courts (1954-1972)
The new blocks i.e. Block A, B,C,D,E,F,G & CGA (excepting a small portion in ground floor with load bearing walls) are made up of RCC frame structure and might have been designed against seismic as per old codal provisions, though there is no cracks/ deformations noticed in these buildings due to such effects. However the present seismic codal provisions are more stringent. So, there may be a possibility in the lack of strength stability of these structures in future unless some specific measures are taken. These may affect the heritage blocks in the complex directly /indirectly in case of any disaster.
A detail discussion has been made in terms of structural aspects of the Writers’ Buildings complex through a report prepared by the Civil Engineering Department which should be referred as and when required for any reference.
Foundation layout drawing of the blocks in Writers’ Buildings complex
During the energy survey, it has been observed that the energy consumption of the entire building complex was 38.4 lakhs units/year before shifting i.e. till 2013.Total built–up area of the entire complex is 50698 sqm. The energy performance index( EPI) is 75.8 kWh/m2/year which is quite high compared to the benchmark energy index which is 45 kWh/m2/year for Non-AC office buildings and 140 kWh/m2/year for complete air-conditioned office buildings in warm & humid zone as per Bureau of Energy Efficiency standard. The whole complex was not an air-conditioned one, a detail calculation is under process to assess the present situation and the proposed one.
During the measurement, the daylight was quite sufficient for some of the office zones with corridor in one side. But due to the visual discomfort & also for air-conditioning purpose, all windows which are the only source of daylight remain closed for majority portion over the year. The thermal comfort level in non-AC open working areas was found quite pleasant while outdoor temperature was 31˚C on an average. Therefore, even though the thermal & visual performance were quite effective, due to the addition of internal loads like A/C, lights, no of occupants etc. The energy performance of the building was not found to be efficient.
Windows of the main block remain closed round the year
The blocks A, B, C, D, E, F, G, CGA are buildings that are incongruous with the rest of the building both visually and also at the level of spatial relationships. These buildings also do not have a common architectural/spatial language.
A very strong observation is that these buildings completely negate the spatial qualities of the main building, by creating intensive development in a zone which according the principles of the type should have been left open.
Another repercussion of this manifests in the building in the form of ad-hoc bridges and connectors between the older buildings and these new buildings. Due to the difference in floor to floor heights, the problem gets compounded and creates a number of messy junctions.
No landscape features are available within the complex neither externally along the other three sides. Plantations are found in the front-side along footpaths of the B.B.D.Bag road. These trees are present in an unattended manner blocking the visibility of the heritage facade (as shown in the photograph taken in 2014).
The Tank at present:
The Tank in the vicinity has always played an important role in the context of Writers’ Buildings location in view of all aspects. The single-storied entrances to the underground parking completely delinked the visual continuity of the ‘Tank’ and the Writers’ Buildings which in turn initiated the ill-maintenance of the only breathing space of the Dalhousie Square area.
From the photographs recorded here taken in different periods, it is noticed that the water body has been reduced drastically and quality of the open space surrounding the same also deteriorated dramatically because of many ad-hoc/insensitive decisions implemented time to time.
Distribution of uses & activity pattern
From the present layout of spaces of various departments ( details given in PART-II document ) & functions, it is evident that there is no logical distribution of departments . This might have happened in order to accommodate the growing demand of spaces for each & every department/s without having any future programme . Thus , attention must be given towards the programmed distribution of spaces so that it can enhance efficiency in time & energy of the human resource.
Rules & Regulations
”Lord Wellesley in 1803 appointed an improvement committee, one of whose duties was ‘to ensure the irregularity of buildings should be forbidden and that the streets and lanes, which have hitherto been formed without attention to the health, convenience or safety of the inhabitants, should henceforth be constructed with order and system.’ ”
Apart from Energy analysis, Fire safety aspects are also important in an institutional building. In the present complex, 55 nos. of fire-incidents happened from 2010 to 2013.
A fire-station is housed within the complex. Some fire-safety arrangements in the form of fire extinguishers in important areas which are not sufficient enough for such a high footfall complex. Since the complex is a heritage one, thus compliance of present Rules & Regulations does not arise. Still the concern for maintaining a healthy environment is there. Thus, it is to be noted that the there is nil compliance of any norms and standards including National Building Code in the Writers’ Buildings complex.
Under the provisions of Section 2 (42A) of the K.M.C. Act 1980 the definition of heritage building has been given. The definition runs thus "heritage building means any building of one or more premises, or any part thereof, which requires preservation and conservation for historical, architectural, environmental or ecological purpose and includes such portion of the land adjoining such building or any part thereof as may be required for fencing or covering or otherwise preserving such building and also includes the areas and buildings requiring preservation and conservation for the purpose as aforesaid under sub-clause (ii) of clause (a) of subsection (4) of the section 31 of the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning and Development) Act, 1979 (West Beng. Act XIII of 1979)"
As per the Graded List of Heritage Buildings prepared by Kolkata Municipal Corporation on 25.02.2009, it comes under Grade- I for which the permissible intervention is mentioned as ‘No external change will be permissible. Use of the building should also be compatible with the category of the heritage building’. For this purpose, it is very important to identify the heritage portions of the building complex.
Considering the present situation, the following options may be worked out:
a) Removing all added portions which do not have any heritage value ( i.e. third floors from all heritage blocks, ii. all floors of Block E, F,G & CG excepting ground floor, iii. Block A, B, C & D)
b) removing Block –A,B,C, D & all floors of Block E, F,G & CG excepting ground floor
c) removing Block A, B & all floors of Block E, F,G & CG excepting ground floor
d) removing Block B only & all floors of Block E, F,G & CG excepting ground floor
Based on the above discussed parameters , it can be decided that the presence of the courtyard blocks which are affecting all aspects like structural safety, fire norms, historical /architectural languages i.e. the overall health & environment of the whole complex should be removed. To adhere to the requirement of a substantial amount of space for accommodating the high-tech services, it is further decided to retain major part of only ground floor of the courtyard blocks. Because of the presence of these courtyard blocks, it would never be possible to revert back to the original ground, thus it is advisable not to disturb the foundation and rather reducing the further stress and to create pockets of landscape areas on the terrace of the single storied courtyard blocks which in turn also address the requirement of fire-fighting reservoirs within the complex. Keeping all these aspects in mind, the first option seems to be most viable in order to continue this complex as a sustainable secretariat in future.
Ground Floor Plan
First Floor Plan
Second Floor plan
Third Floor Plan
Fourth Floor Plan
Fifth Floor Plan
Sixth Floor Plan
The Way Forward
After several discussion and critical deliberation S.E.A.R.C.H. has been devised.
It is a Sustainable Efficient Architecture that is Responsible, Clean and respects its Heritage.
A major public institution has to be sustainable in its concept. That is when architecturally interpreted as a balance of development vis a vis its open space system adequate to support its activity pattern meaningfully. Exiting Writers’ Buildings is over constructed and has also developed in a haphazard manner and thereby intensifying its negative image. Therefore the initial task is to get rid of the aberrations and let the building breathe and ventilate. Thereafter creating additional space in a holistic manner is the necessary agenda for accommodating the essential need. The space thus generated must be able to perform. We however must understand that it is not a new building and we are working at a given context. Therefore extending the original design logic is the sustainable way. The proposed additions support this logic. It is also essential to understand the changing nature of the Institutional activities. Priorities and relationship keep changing, associated spaces expands, contract. Therefore certain amount of flexibility of use needs to be incorporated at the design stage. The activity of Writers’ buildings have to perform is two fold– administrative and the secretariat. The former has a popular public image than the secretariat which is more functional. They need different levels of security and monitoring. Therefore functional zoning has to be dovetailed in the proposed system. Circulation and movement system is the key to the proposed networking. They form the key strategy for use distribution, safety of the building and also support various other support systems in an organised manner.
Efficiency in the various systems proposed makes it sustainable. The design component identified earlier has been re-examined for its efficiency. To make a system efficient it is necessary to have clarity of expression- that is legibility. What are the components and how that is linked and articulated is its strength. The circulation system proposed has clear nodes and direct pathways leading to various security zones. Orthogonal arrangement helps in orientation. The hierarchy protocol is established in the system as well in the overall design concept. This strengthens the legibility and therefore prompts an expected behaviour. The service systems proposed has also clearly defined with ease of access. There is always a need for up gradation, new installation in a public building of importance. It has designed in such a manner so that they can be individually attended and efficiently managed. This will also provide for cost efficiency. Upgrading has been always more cost effective than new intervention.
Both these attitudes are manifested in the design programme for the proposed conservation of Writers’ Buildings. The court yard typology have been adopted and completed in continuity with the intention of its Heritage past. The design logic of having deep corridors in the south and west in the heritage façade is stills an eco-friendly logic, as it cuts down the glare and heat gain into the building. To gain better serviceability the ground floor has been conceived as the basic service floor and gain a landscaped public space at the first floor level. This would allow for improved light and ventilation within the building and influence the micro climate.
To built-in the synergy with its predominant heritage component of Writers’ buildings the treatments of public spaces follow similar logic. Focal areas have been emphasised, axial pattern is being maintained. The architectural composition of solids and voids has been respected in the proposed south face abutting the courtyard. Material palette remaining the same the complementary treatment has been introduced in tune with the best practices of conservation.
Conscious landscape element has been introduced in the new courts which is formal in mood to suit with the ambience of the public building of such monumental proportion.
Such an example of architecture has a tremendous public presence and a part of the Dalhousie square composition – simulating world heritage. It always enhances the expression power with the wide expanse, centrality, classical European architectural elements complete with the iconic symbols of key elements of democracy. The conservation plan has extended the impression beyond the heritage façade into its central court deep within the proposed composition with new imposed value and commitment to the citizens of Bengal. To meet the upgraded security of the public figures it is essential to introduce secondary VIP entry –exit from the Northern Façade. It is almost centrally aligned to the existing central VIP entry. Central public activities like council room, conference Halls, Public Hall etc. are grouped around this landscaped court - an extension of the public image corridor. It would be interesting to point out the evolution of Writers’ buildings would be demarcated physically in its main block to reveal its historical journey and the continuity the present conservation process undertakes.
There will always be the contemporary design values that must be engrained in the overall architecture. In the proposed conservation plan care has been taken to bring out an environmentally clean (smart) image. Design order and articulation sets the basic impression. Micro climate improvement has been done through landscape. The element of nature has been included in an otherwise an intensely built setup for making it humane and soft –a public friendly image. To reduce the energy demand maximising the daylight has been sought and fulfilled thought the courts, light shelves and shafts. The roof would be used as a solar park for augmenting energy supply. The use of natural, recycling and renovation would help in reducing the carbon footprint. In all these aspects it is not only act as the revitalised Writers’ buildings but also a benchmark for the future government Institutions. Maintenance has been a major concern for public institutions. The services, design would be specifically detailed for effective regular maintenance programme.
Conservation programme of the Writers Building has been anchored in its Architectural Heritage. Inspiration of the future addition alteration has taken its clue from its Heritage fabric. The various historic layers would be unearthed and responded appropriately. It will have proper annotation and references- so that layers of history if visible and correlated. The restoration of the Heritage part would be taken up as per best practices of restoration so that the patina of time, age is preserved. All the later addition .alteration, blemishes from the Heritage façade would be removed and restored to the original colour, material palette with patience and best of workmanship. Old artefacts related to the building would be restored along with installing new matching artefacts and appropriately incorporated.
Writers’ Buildings Tomorrow
VIEW – WEST
VIEW – SOUTH
VIEW – NORTH
VIEW – EAST